Knowledge of cashew tree genetic variability is important to maximize the use of its genetic resources for future breeding and conservation programs. In the present work, the genetic variability of 122 A. humile accessions from 11 municipalities (provenances) of the Cerrado was quantified by RAPD markers. The primers with higher expression were OPA11 and 08. The ten primers used generated 157 bands, 156 polymorphic (99%), with an average of 15.6 bands/primer. Large variability within municipalities was detected, with polymorphism greater than 90%, except from Jataí-GO origin. The accesses of Caiapônia-GO and Santo Antônio do Descoberto-GO were the most genetically distant. Total dissimilarity between accessions ranged from 0.103 to 0.796, with means of 0.390. The accessions 87 and 114 from Serranópolis-GO and Santo Antônio do Descoberto-GO, respectively, were the most genetically distant, demonstrating the importance of these provenances in enriching the germplasm bank of the species. Cerrado cashew has a high rate of genetic variability and is considered a potential species in in situ and ex situ conservation programs and breeding programs, most of which are within their populations.